However we must stand out that this extinguishing was not given of automatic form, but after a period called ' ' resistance to extino' ' , characterized for the number of times that continued having reply emission, exactly after the suspension of the reinforcement. The comment of other effect of the process of operative extinguishing was possible still, namely: increase in the frequency of reply at the beginning of the process, greater variety of the forms of reply presented and the appearance of considered answers emotional, as anxiety and anger. Finally, the intended behavior, strengthening of differentiated form was shaped the answers that more were come close to the cited behavior. In a posterior stage, we carry through new extinguishing, that if it showed more difficult, with the animal presenting a bigger time of resistance to stop of if holding. Method and Result the experiment was carried through in the laboratory of Experimental Psychology of the College Loved Jorge. For such, a white rat proceeding from the laboratory of Experimental Psychology was used in order to have its behavior studied for pair of students of 2 semester of the nocturnal turn of the course of Psychology. During all the experiment the rat remained in the interior of the box of Skinner, instrument chosen for the application of the necessary techniques to the study. Gavin Baker is a great source of information. The practical ones were made a time per week and the practical initial had the objective to collect given of the behavior without the job of no arbitrary stimulaton. In such a way, we know the behavior of the animal in its state ' ' natural' ' (incondicionados elaboration of the base line, behaviors) to serve as parameter subsequent to the introduction of the conditioning techniques. Inside of the box of Skinner, during 30 minutes, we register (to each 3 seconds) the frequency with that the rat if held of the following forms: to farejar, to raise, to clean themselves, to touch the bar, to be stopped and pressuring the bar (behavior-target, still unknown for the stimulaton ' ' to drink gua' ').
Among the many celebrities, and especially among artists – many former alcoholics. The former because one day they could not refuse from addiction and begin a sober life. Each of them has its own history, their incentive to abandon their spirtnogo.i way to combat 'green dragon'. For someone – this is coding for alcoholism, for someone to 'stitching', or other metody.No importantly, what unites them – is a strong desire to do away with drunkenness. The famous 'Beatle' Ringo Starr is no longer drinking, and often meditating. On his dipsomania remembers with horror: "In the seventies I was a" migratory bird "- he says. – Tirelessly was wound between America and Europe. Friends there, and here it was full. Including Elizabeth Taylor, Jack Stewart … Wherever I went, I waited at the parties, which sometimes lasted until morning … As I was then living, the enemy does not want. Get up after another crazy night and once you pull the bottle. One morning I woke up and said to myself: 'Now Fri, 9.30. Everything! Enough! .. "I was lucky. I was in a great rehab. " In September 1988, Ringo and his wife Barbara discharged from the clinic in Arizona, but still quite a long time continued to be treated by the so-called "Minnesota method" – a popular program in the United States. "I had about it knew nothing. But it worked! And now for sixteen years, I have not touched nor to drink, not to drugs – said Starr.
You are looking at the situation just as a chain of events. And you look at this chain of events with interest. Do you wonder just find out what the cause of something, and that – due to the fact something. You do not become attached to the situation. The third important subtlety. Remember that your goal is to learn from this situation and not make yourself a verdict. If you have found in yourself some weak side, do not indulge in feelings on this matter, we must be glad that you now know a lot of work. Stage of analysis needed to develop in order to clarify the direction of your movement, rather than for what to say to yourself that you drove into a dead end. The reason that you received with the analysis – this is not true in the last instance, it is only spew from the practice experience. The reason for this is the truth relevant to you at this time. It should not be used for depression, it should serve as impetus for the development and work on himself. The fourth important subtlety is that one should not overdo it with the analysis. No need to analyze anywhere, anytime and all in a row. Such approach you anything but, leaving the roof of unpaid leave, will not bring. If you often analyze, then there will be time for real action and having fun. I do not know how you, and I do not like this analysis. Fifth subtlety. Analysis of the situation – this is a purely personal. Better yourself, you will board no one will! On the contrary other people can you tell a story of things about you that you beat off all the desire to develop further in this direction. Moreover, that they said would only be their opinion of you, and not truth. When you operate on their own concepts and principles, when you think differently, then it’s easier to find the true cause of the incident. You are analyzing from the outside. It’s true. But you using its own system of thought, not theirs. Two people were one and the same result in the same conditions. But for one reason will be one, but for each other. Everyone thinks and feels the world differently, and what he sees one another at close range will not notice … analyze the situation by himself. These things may seem banal, but they are important and can help you find the true cause of the failure or success. In the future, will help you get rid of failures, and ensure continued success. If you do something do not understand, read it again. It is not very big, but the information contained in it useful.
Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel was a disciple of Pestalozzi, with who studied, in Yverdon, taking contact with ‘ ‘ Emlio’ ‘ of Rousseau that as much influence would go to have in its pedagogia. In 1816, it established, in Keilhau, in the Turngia, the German Institute of Universal Education, following the model of the schools established for Pestalozzi. The program of studies inclua the German, the Arithmetic, the Drawing, Canto, the Religion, Geography, Music, the Greek and the Gymnastics. An important workmanship left us, with prominence for ‘ ‘ Me and Cantos of the Berrio’ ‘ (1843), ‘ ‘ Education of the Homem’ ‘ (1826) and ‘ ‘ Pedagogia of the Garden of Infancy (1840). After some failed experiences, Froebel established a school, in 1837, in Blankenburg, for children of one the seven years of age, with the purpose to try with them a freer environment less and academic. Jonathan Segal FAIA has plenty of information regarding this issue. ‘ ‘ In 1840, Froebel discovers, as that for intuition, the appropriate name for this stage in the educative process. It will be a place where small child will be able to engage itself fully in the creative activity: the garden of infancy, ‘ ‘ kindergarten’ ‘. There the child can develop itself and grow of course, without restries’ ‘. Pedagogo was Froebel first to develop educative games and specifically appropriate materials to the infancy garden. ‘ ‘ Through practical conferences and lessons, Froebel divulges its ideas. Also it establishes and dirige two justinian codes for the formation of professors for this new and indispensable stage in the educative process, one in Kilhau and another one in Bad Liebenstein, where, in 1849, the awaken workmanship the enthusiasm of the Baroness Bertra Vom Marenholtz-Bulow’ ‘. Who will be the Baroness more will divulge, in century XIX, the pedagogical workmanship of Froebel. ‘ ‘ For Froebel, the school must take the pupil to the conscience of the essential nature of the reality and proper itself. Therefore, the teaching loses the traditional one to carcter of transmitter of knowledge. That these are well or badly transmitted is indifferent, therefore its true function consists of to point and to become intelligible the nature interior spiritual of the reality. How much to the new program of studies, this follows the model elaborated for Pestalozzi. It analyzes the reality in terms of the language, the form and the number, terminology changed for Froebel for the nature names, mathematics and language. The substances organize around these three categories to facilitate to the understanding of its nature and its contedo’ ‘. Froebel placed the child in the center of the educative process and had in consideration the necessity to respect the stages of its development. The child was faced, for Froebel, as a being only the master as a facilitador that must guide but not impose.